Wednesday, November 21, 2018

Kerkyra (Greece) taking Sellia Marina (Italy) NAVTEX skeds UFN

This affects both 490 and 518 kHz. Kerkya is using the same letters and time slots. The only differences are the transmitter location and government operators.

This notice was transmitted in NAVTEX bulletin KA69:

051500 UTC NOV 18

Monday, August 27, 2018

Freak magnetic storm causes wretched band conditions

Your radio isn't busted.  A variety of events affecting the Earth's magnetic field have caused one of the longest geomagnetic storms in recent memory.  The K index has reached 7 on a number of occasions in the last three days, and this is expected to continue on and off.  K is back to 7 as of this writing. 

Surface events such as ground currents in Norway have taken place. We also saw some extreme southward Bz, including a sustained period of -17 nT yesterday.  Strong aurora has occurred in high geomagnetic latitudes. Geomagnetic storming has reached the G3 level at times.

A large coronal hole is the current cause of all this, but when it started it was due to some less common phenomena.  For various reasons, the resulting band conditions have been some of the year's worst, with extended periods of weak or missing signals.  We have not seen the sudden dropouts related to solar flares, since there haven't been any flares.  It's been just days of truly dreadful propagation.

The flow from the coronal hole is expected to persist for several more days.

While it has no relation to the geomagnetic activity, the appearance of a large sunspot pair with an opposite magnetic field is also getting attention.  If this group (AR 2720) was at a higher solar latitude, we would definitely have the first spots of Cycle 25. However, it is near the solar equator.

Even in quiet-sun conditions, our neighborhood star is good for surprises.

Thursday, August 23, 2018

Concern Rising within Amateur Radio Community over WWV Shutdown Proposal

From ARRL Letter:

ARRL members and Amateur Radio clubs are expressing increased concern over the inclusion of WWV and WWVH on a list of proposed cuts in the White House's National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Fiscal Year 2019 budget request. The proposed cuts, which only recently came to light, would also include the Atomic Clock signal from WWVB. Online petitions soliciting signatures include one established by Tom Kelly II, W7NSS, of Portland, Oregon, who would like to see funding for the stations maintained. The decision is up to Congress.
"It is important to note that no changes to NIST services have occurred, and if the proposal were to be implemented, public notice would be provided," NIST said this week.
ARRL is suggesting that members of the Amateur Radio community who value the stations for their precise time and frequency signals and other information sign the petition and/or contact their members of Congress promptly, explaining how the stations are important to them, beyond government and military use. WWV is among the oldest radio stations in the US and has broadcast the official time for nearly a century.
According to the NIST Fiscal Year (FY) 2019 budget request, the specific cut would come from the NIST Fundamental Measurement, Quantum Science, and Measurement Dissemination budget and would amount to $6.3 million.
"NIST has a long-standing history of providing time and frequency services through our radio stations and we appreciate that many people use these services," NIST said in a statement. "WWV is the longest continuously operating radio service in the US. At the same time, the proposed NIST budget for FY 2019 required difficult choices about budget priorities."
NIST said that it plans to eliminate "efforts that have been replaced by newer technologies, measurement science research that lies outside NIST's core mission space, and programs that can no longer be supported due to facility deterioration."
WWV and WWVH broadcast 24/7. Announcements include time announcements, standard time intervals, standard frequencies, UT1 time corrections, a BCD time code, geophysical alerts, and marine storm warnings. Transmissions are broadcast from separate transmitters on 5, 10, 15, and 20 MHz. An experimental 25 MHz signal is also currently on the air. WWVB transmits standard Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) signals on 60 kHz to appropriately equipped devices. Read more.

Thursday, August 16, 2018

Proposed NIST budget eliminates WWV/WWVH


That's all I can say.  This may be the first time anything to do with radio has made me ruin my vocabulary in public.

As our headline indicates, the proposed FY 2019 budget for the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology includes the elimination of WWV and WWVH:
-$6.3 million supporting fundamental measurement dissemination, including the shutdown of NIST radio stations in Colorado and Hawaii
It's time to flood NIST with letters.  This would be a fundamental loss to anyone using a radio in North America.  WWVB is great for clocks, but it's outside the coverage of most HF radios, and also its signal does not cover the entire hemisphere.

This comes from The SWLing Post, via the ARRL Letter.

Tuesday, July 17, 2018

My first decent fix with KiwiSDR TDoA mode

I finally got a good fix on a station with the KiwiSDR TDoA extension.  It's tricky, but for a system available to the public, it works amazingly well.  The instructions that are given from the "Help" button are accurate. That's how you do it.  The secret is indeed to use the minimum possible passband in IQ mode, and to pick relatively close receivers.

Here's a plot of the French 2-megawatt LW time station, made with three receivers. This band is groundwave propagation, with fewer variables than you get with skywave.  The signal is very steady, and comes from a known location, which we see marked by the "TDF" label.  The fix given by the Kiwi system nails the longitude right on, and only misses the latitude by about 30 arc-minutes to the north. That's pretty good.  It's possible that more receivers would have refined the plot further.

Anyway, it works.

Friday, July 13, 2018

KiwiSDR introduces record and TDoA functions

You've probably been playing around with the huge KiwiSDR network which can be reached from . Just this week, too late to put into the column, it has rolled out a new beta with a recorder and a Time Difference of Arrivial (TDoA) direction finder.

Both seem pretty slick. The recorder is self-explanatory. You click a big red button over on the top right of the control panel, and it starts recording. Click again, and it stops, at which point it downloads to your computer. This will save me having to remember to start a recording application on this computer every time sometime gets interesting. Also, it's possible the recording will be minus whatever net dropouts and errors you get in transit to your machine.  I'm not sure yet, but it sounds logical.

The TDoA has a learning curve.  When I get it to work, I'll write more about it. Basically, it uses the KiwiSDR network as one huge direction finding system, synchronized to GPS time and positions. The user tunes in a station to locate, changes the mode to "IQ" (In phase/Quadrature) and selects other SDRs positioned to receive the signal and give a good solid computation.  That's the tricky part. Ground wave signals work best, favoring the VLF/LF stations. Also sometimes enough receivers can be found near the target.  One can make sure the other SDRs receive the signal too by double-clicking them, which opens them in a new tab.

When it's all set up, click "select" and watch it churn.  It can go for several minutes.  I have yet to have it return a "heat map" with the most likely positions, but others have. For example, someone got a pretty good fix on the 4625 kHz Russian "buzzer" ("UVB-76," S38). The hot spot shown is outside St. Petersburg. In other words, right where I told you it was.

More on the TDoA here.

This could have a major effect on the hobby. More information as it comes.

Tuesday, July 10, 2018

More Night of Nights XIX

RD passes along the following:

The correct station phone number is: +1 415-669-9646 . The number is answered only when the station is on the air.

We mentioned that on-air operations will start at 5:01pm Pacific time (0001Z 13 July) but didn't say how long operations will continue. We usually continue live operations until about 9:30pm Pacific time (0430Z). At that point K6KPH operations cease and KPH and KFS operations are turned over to the transmit site. They continue to broadcast press, weather and special messages until 0000 Pacific time (0700Z). We then hand key the benediction (written by Denice Stoops) from the transmit site and call it a night.

Information for Night of Nights XIX

Is it really 19 years?

Be that as it may, here is full information on the annual triumph of the human spirit also known as MRHS Night of Nights. Notice the absence of the US Coast Guard, not to mention WLO, which has left the air. Be that as it may, the fun continues.



Yes, of course there will be a Night of Nights this year.  And of course, as usual, you are invited to join us on the air or in person for this dramatic and moving event.

What - On 12 July 1999 a ceremony was held at the receive site for coast station KFS at which the last commercial Morse message in the US was sent.  Or so it was thought.  But that was also the date on which the Maritime Radio Historical Society (MRHS) was founded, with the mission to assure that commercial Morse would not perish from the Earth.

Why - Morse code is clearly obsolete, nobody uses it, it's just beeps in the air.  So who cares if it perishes?  The people at that ceremony at KFS cared.  They cared deeply.  Hard bitten grizzled old buzzards who had spent their life at sea as radio officers were weeping.  They were seeing their profession, their passion and, in a way, their life passing away before their eyes.  So it became the mission of the MRHS to make sure that the skills, the culture and the traditions of these men and women would be remembered and preserved through the restoration and operation of one of the greatest of all coast stations: KPH.

Richard Dillman, later to become MRHS Chief Operator, sends one of the last messages on 12 July 1999
Where - Join us at the RCA receiving station, 17400 Sir Francis Drake Blvd. in the Point Reyes National Seashore at the foot of the Cypress tree tunnel.

Cypress tree tunnel
When - 12 July 2018.  Each year on the anniversary of that supposed last message, plus one minute, KPH comes roaring back to the air with all the full throated majesty that mariners around the world heard for decades.  Station KFS will also be on the air as well as amateur station K6KPH which will be standing by for your comments and signal reports.  Doors open at 3:00pm PDT.  The opening message will be broadcast at 5:01pm PDT (0001gmt).

Join us for a complete tour of the station.  Enjoy complimentary radio sandwiches and all the trimmings.  Photograph everything.  Whisper the magic words "True Believer" and be granted access to the fabled Treasure Room where the gems of maritime radio history are kept.

For those of you around the world who will be listening for KPH and KFS or calling K6KPH, here are our frequencies along with the transmitters and antennas that will be used.  The RCA transmitters are 1950s vintage.  The Press Wireless PW15 is from 1942.  The Henry transmitters are 1990s vintage.

Key: EDZ = Extended Double Zepp.  H/2 = H over 2

KPH (5kW):

426          Henry MF5000D  Marconi T

500          Henry MF5000D  Marconi T
4247.0     RCA 252K            EDZ
6477.5     RCA 251K            EDZ
8642.0     RCA 303L            EDZ
12808.5   RCA 304L            H/2
17016.8   RCA 305L            H/2
22477.5   RCA 298H           H/2

KFS (5kW):

12695.5   PW-15                 H/2
17026.0   Henry HF5000D  H/2

KPH and KFS operators will listen for calls from ships on 500kc MF and ITU Ch 3 HF.  Listen on these frequencies if you want to hear the ship side of the QSO.


K6KPH (1.5kW):

3550.0     Henry HF5000D  End-fed wire
7050.0     Henry HF5000D  EDZ
14050.0   Henry HF5000D   H/2
21050.0   Henry HF5000D   H/2

Reception reports and QSLs may be sent to:

Maritime Radio Historical Society
PO Box 392
Point Reyes Station, CA 94956

Monday, July 02, 2018

Lights out at WLO

WLO, Mobile Radio in Alabama, has discontinued most of its services as of 1 July 2018. It was the last of the great old coastal traffic stations in the US. The following was posted to their facebook account:
Sad announcement: It's the end of an era.....after 71 years, WLO will go off the air at 11:59CDT (0459UTC) on 01July2018. A few automated systems/services will continue but there will no longer be 24/7 operators on duty at the Mobile, AL stations. Thank you everyone that liked and commented on this page. I will keep the page up for a while longer.

Leigh (KC4MZT)- Radio/telephone operator, admin

Tuesday, April 03, 2018

HAARP Facility to Resume Ionospheric Research this Week

Heads up, radio nerds!  It's spring, and that's HAARP time.  HAARP's new incarnation is less tinfoil-y than the former military project, and there's often more to hear than just the usual funny noises.


Alaska’s super-power High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) transmitters in Gakona, Alaska, will fire up again for the spring research campaign April 6 – 14. University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) Space Physics Group researcher and HAARP Chief Scientist Chris Fallen, KL3WX, told ARRL that more than 40 hours of “externally funded” experiments are in the queue.

“Scientists from US universities and government labs will explore the physics of scintillations, magnetic field-aligned plasma irregularities, artificial and natural atmospheric airglow, stimulated electromagnetic emissions, plasma waves, and radio-enhanced ionization,” Fallen said. “The HAARP transmitter is still at 80% net power, but by summer we expect to have the final ‘column’ of transmitters restored, bringing the array back to 100%.”

For his part, Fallen said he still has some time remaining on his National Science Foundation (NSF) grant to study artificial airglow, but added that this is “a tough time of year in a tough year of the solar cycle” for such experiments. “It will not be dark enough in Gakona to observe artificial airglow emissions until 10 PM at the beginning of the campaign and 10:30 PM at the end of the campaign, due to the rapidly lengthening days in the Land of Midnight Sun.”

Fallen said that due to weakening solar activity, the critical frequency of the ionosphere’s F2 layer (foF2) is relatively low during the day, peaking at a little more than 4 MHz above Gakona in the late afternoon, and falling rapidly in the evening. “This limits the time available for experiments, since airglow is usually only created when the HAARP transmission frequency is near or below foF2,” Fallen explained. “The lower limit of the HAARP transmitter is approximately 2.7 MHz, and so we can only expect perhaps 30 minutes or less of usable airglow experiment time each day.”

Fallen said he is considering his options and plans to continue “bundling” amplitude modulations in the airglow experiments of interest to hams. His previous airglow experiments were accompanied by tones and music to illustrate the Luxembourg effect and slow-scan television (SSTV) images in Scottie 1 format.

“In future experiments, I want to try sending text and images using one of the MFSK modes,” Fallen told ARRL. “Several hams have requested I try the smoking hot FT8 mode with HAARP. Since that is a mode primarily designed for two-way contacts and makes use of time synchronization to help achieve amazing efficiency, it is not yet clear to me how to best do this with HAARP which currently has no receive capability.”

Fallen said he has to be at UAF for much of the April campaign but will be at HAARP toward the end. He plans to tweet selected transmitter frequencies and other information throughout the campaign from his personal Twitter page. HAARP’s official Twitter page will share photos and other information of general interest, “such as what the HAARP dog is up to,” Fallen said.

Operation of the HAARP research facility was transferred from the US Air Force to UAF in 2015.

More on SWRadiogram schedule changes

The Friday show didn't air at its new time.  It was also gone from its old air time on Sunday. (All dates U.S..)

Presumably WRMI's automation is slow in making the summer changes. We'll try again this week.

Friday, March 30, 2018

Summer schedule changes for SWRadiogram

From Kim Andrew Elliott:

Hello friends,

A schedule change for Shortwave Radiogram is scheduled to begin today. The Sunday 2030-2100 UTC transmission changes to Friday 2030-2100 UTC on 7780 kHz and 9455 kHz. See the new schedule below. (Sometimes it takes a few days for the automation system to catch up with the advertised schedule, so we will see what actually happens this weekend.)

Last week's MFSK64 performed very well, even in reception conditions where this fast (240 wpm) would be expected to show errors. You can see (and decode from) examples in videos produced by BlackApple 62 in Italy (Saturday 1600 UTC) and by Scott in Ontario (Sunday 2330 UTC).

This weekend, we'll skip the simultaneous text and image transmission, but we will transmit one item (with image) in MFSK64. It is a story about Dyngus Day, an obscure holiday on the Monday after Easter celebrated in my native northern Indiana.

The rest of the program will be in MFSK32, except for a brief surprise mode (with RSID) after the closing announcements. Sorry, I don't think the surprise mode works with TIVAR or AndFlmsg, but it is brief, and another RSID will bring you back to MFSK32.

Here is the lineup for Shortwave Radiogram, program 41, 30 March to 2 April 2018, in MFSK32 except where noted:

 1:35  Program preview
 2:46  MFSK64: Happy Dyngus Day! What is Dyngus Day?*
 8:24  MFSK32: Australia plans lasers to destroy space junk*
14:52  The great Pacific garbage patch*
19:49  SSTV from the International Space Station*
24:44  Image* and closing announcements
27:37  Surprise mode

* with image

Please send reception reports to

Twitter: @SWRadiogram

Shortwave Radiogram Program 41
(30 March-2 April 2018)
2030-2100 UTC
7780 kHz
9455 kHz
MFSK64, and
surprise mode
WRMI Florida
1600-1630 UTC
9400 kHz
Space Line, Bulgaria
2330-2400 UTC
7780 kHz
WRMI Florida
0800-0830 UTC
7730 kHz
5850 kHz
WRMI Florida

The Mighty KBC transmits to Europe Saturdays at 1500-1600 UTC on 9400 kHz (via Bulgaria), with the minute of MFSK at about 1530 UTC (if you are outside of Europe, listen via ).  And to North America Sundays at 0000-0200 UTC (Saturday 8-10 pm EST) on 5960 kHz, via Germany. The minute of MFSK is at about 0130 UTC.  Reports to Eric: . See also and

Italian Broadcasting Corporation (IBC)
 For the complete IBC transmission schedule visit  Five minutes of MFSK32 is at the end of the 30-minute English-language “Shortwave Panorama,” per the schedule below:

Italian Broadcasting Corporation (IBC)
Broadcasts in English with MFSK32 during the last five minutes of each
0100-0230 UTC
5950, 7730 kHz
2000-2030 UTC
5845, 6070 kHz
Europe/Middle East/Asia
0100-0130 UTC
9955 kHz
0230-0300 UTC
5985 kHz
0030-0100 UTC
9395 kHz
0130-0200 UTC
5850, 5950, 7780, 9455 kHz
0030-0100 UTC
7730 kHz

Thanks for your reception reports!  

Kim Andrew Elliott, KD9XB
Producer and Presenter
Reporting on international broadcasting at

Saturday, January 20, 2018

European NDB Log

Heard late 2017 on various remote SDRs
Identified from REU

khz      ID     Location
277.0    CHT    Chiltern, UK
284.0    GNA    Gorna, Bulgaria
289.0    HR     Hericourt, France
290.0    ONL    Liege, Belgium
293.0    OB     Brussels National Airport, Belgium
307.0    DIK    Diekirch, Luxembourg
309.0    DO     Dole/Tavaux, France
300.0    SC     Linkoping, Sweden
303.0    RTT    Rattenberg, Austria
307.0    DIK    Diekirch, Luxembourg
310.0    KT     possibly Novosibirsk
311.0    LMA    Lima/Bruggen, Germany
314.0    OZ     Brussels National Airport, Belgium
316.0    EPM    Epson (Heathrow), UK
317.0    VS     Valenciennes, France
317.0    OZ     Kardla, Estonia
318.0    HIG    Bremen, Germany
319.0    VAR    Varhaug/Stavanger, Norway
320.0    VE     Valence, France
321.0    ABY    Albert, France, dit in between IDs
322.0    LCY    London City Airport, UK
323.0    ONC    Charleroi, Belgium
324.0    ON     Norrkoping, Sweden
325.0    RCA    Reggio di Calabria, Italy
326.0    LLS    Lelystad, Holland
326.0    POR    Porto, Portugal
327.0    LNZ    Linz, Austria
328.0    BLK    Blackbushe, UK
329.0    JW     Jersey
330.0    LNA    Lena, Sweden
330.0    SO     Groningen, Holland
330.0    SRN    Saronno, Italy
330.0    ZRA    Zadar, Croatia
331.0    TUR    Tours, France, dit between IDs
332.0    LL     Lille, France, dit between IDs
332.0    SHM    Shoreham, UK
332.5    CAM    Cambridge, UK
333.0    LE     Hasslo, Sweden
333.5    VOG    Voghera, Italy
334.0    MR     Maribor, Slovenia
335.0    WCO    Westcott, UK
337.0    EX     Exeter, UK
337.0    MY     Myggenaes, FRO
338.0    OA     Jankoping, Sweden
338.0    FNY    Finningley, UK
338.0    MNW    Munchen, Germany
338.0    NC     Nice, France
340.0    LSH    Lashenden, UK
341.0    IS     Ajaccio, Corsica
343.0    MR     Masirah, Oman
345.0    TZO    Trezzo sull'Adda, Italy
345.5    CF     Centograf, Czech Republic
348.0    CL     Canors/Lalbenque, France
349.5    SZA    Solanzara, Corsica
354.0    NG     Nimes/Garons, France
358.0    RNN    Roanne, France
358.0    TUN    Tulln, Austria
361.0    MAK    Mackel, Belgium
362.0    RU     Sevastopol, Ukraine; 2x ID and gap
363.0    OEM    Everod, Sweden
364.0    MAL    Malpensa, Italy
366.0    ADC    Le Castellet, France
369.0    RT     possibly Ramenskoye
370.0    BSV    Bensacron/La Veze, France
370.0    NK     Unknown, 400 Hz, 2x ID
370.0    GAC    Gacko, Bosnia and Herzegovina
371.0    MYN    Munster, Germany
373.0    LCT    Le Cannet, France
374.5    ANC    Ancona, Italy
375.0    GLA    Gland/Geneva, Switzerland
376.0    HAN    Hahn, Germany
376.0    BS     Bale/Mulhouse, France
378.0    LU     Le Luc, France
381.0    BW     possibly Sheremetevo, Russia
382.0    LAR    Arruda, Portugal
383.0    MAR    Marseille, France
383.0    ALD    Alderney, GSY
383.0    ERK    Erken, Sweden
384.0    AT     Annecy/Meythet, France
384.0    ADX    Andraitx, BAL
385.0    AVN    Vilnius, Lithuania
386.0    LNE    Milano/Linate, Italy
386.0    BZ     Brize Norton, UK
387.0    BGP    Brest Guipavas, France
388.0    COR    Corner for Bromma, Sweden
388.0    KRU    Kruunupyy, Finland
388.5    CDF    Cardiff, Wales
390.0    DR     Dinard, France
390.0    PAJ    Pajela, Sweden
392.0    RAN    Ranta, Finland
392.5    TOP    Torino/Poirino, Italy
393.0    TAT    Tautra, Norway
395.0    FOY    Foynes, Shannon AP, Ireland
396.0    FS     Al Massira, Morocco
397.0    LM     Borlange, Sweden
398.0    ESS    Esse, Finland
398.0    MT     Montoir, France
400.0    AG     Agen, France
401.0    LA     Laval, France
401.0    RBU    Rambu, Norway
404.0    AGO    Angouleme, France
404.0    KG     Kjerringnes, Norway
404.0    Y      Ketolanpera, Finland
406.0    UM     possibly Ivanovskoy, Russia
406.0    BHX    Birmingham, UK
406.5    BOT    Bottrop, Germany (1500 Hz)
409.0    BRK    Bruck, Austria
410.0    C      La Coruna, Spain
414.0    BRI    Bristol, UK
414.0    HD     Hestad, Norway
414.0    SJA    Senja, Norway
415.0    TOE    Toulouse, France
416.0    POZ    Pozarevac, Serbia
417.0    CVT    Madrid/Cuatro Vientos, Spain
417.0    SNO    Santiago, Spain
419.0    RD     Vasteras, Sweden
421.0    BL     Borlange, Sweden
421.0    BUR    Burnham, UK
421.0    GE     Madrid/Grinon, Spain
422.0    PAM    Pamplona, Spain
423.0    FE     Odense, Denmark
424.0    RUS    Reus, Spain
424.0    LOE    Limoges, France
424.0    PIS    Zagreb/Pisarovina, HRV
425.0    PI     Pii, Ukraine, 2x ID
426.0    CB     Coimbra, Portugal
426.0    CTS    Castets, France
426.0    SH     Shobdon, England
427.0    LUE    Lunde, Sweden
427.0    RY     Royan, France
428.0    CTX    Chateauroux, France
428.0    MUS    Nice, France
428.0    TGM    Targu Mures, Romania
429.0    LOS    Losinj, Croatia
430.0    AJ     Staritza, Russia, 2x ID
430.0    LU     Batumi, Georgia
430.0    MB     Chamukha, Russia, 2x ID
430.0    SN     St. Yan, France
432.0    AKU    Akujarvi, Finland
432.0    PK     Prevek, Czech Republic
432.0    PRD    Peyrehorade, France
433.0    VNS    Castor UGS, platform off Spain
433.0    CRE    Cres, Croatia
433.5    HEN    Henton, UK
434.0    KNE    Kunovice, Czech Republic
434.0    MV     Melun/Villaroche, France
436.0    SME    Sarmellek, Hungary
437.0    NP     Porter, Poland
438.0    B      Bratislava, Slovakia
438.0    KO     Kozala, Croatia
438.0    PE     Poprad, Slovakia
438.0    XA     Kirov, Russia
444.0    NRD    Lnowroclaw
445.0    TU     Tuzla, Bosnia & Herzegovina, tone+ID
448.0    HLV    Holesov, Czech Republic
448.0    LQ     Landsberg, Germany, Tone+ID
450.0    PDV    Plovdiv, Bulgaria
452.0    ANS    Ansbach, Germany
460.0    ABD    unknown
463.0    CL     Cerkljje, Slovenia
468.0    FTZ    Myneralnye Vody, Russia, tone+ID
470.0    BK     unknown, possibly Boufarik, Algeria
474.0    BIA    Rzeszow-Jasionka Airport, Poland
484.0    HOF    Hof, Germany
485.0    IA     Indija, Serbia
485.0    CW     Krasnaya Gorbatka, Russia, 2x ID
486.0    KL     Krasniy Sulin, Russia
488.0    ILM    Illesheim, Germany
488.0    NPR    Tomaszow-Mazowiecki, Poland
489.0    NK     Poznan, Poland
489.0    SIL    Siegerland, Germany
490.0    WAK    Vakarel, Bulgaria, long dah after K
492.0    TBV    Trebova, Czech Republic
493.0    AW     possibly Maryino, Russia
508.0    Z      Zilina, Slovakia
509.0    CR     Chernivtsi, Ukraine
510.0    BL     Blida, Algeria
514.0    GO     Amari AB, Estonia
514.5    LA     Namest Nae Oslavou, Czech Rep.
515.0    NV     Rostov Na Donu, Russia
517.0    ARD    Arad, Romania
520.0    NW     Leczyca, Poland
520.0    B      Bacau, Romania
520.0    DF     Mukhrani, Georgia
520.0    NW     Leczyca, Poland
521.0    BSW    Bucuresti, Romania
565.0    KS     possibly Opaliha, Russia, 2x ID
690.0    DM     Dmytrivka, Ukraine
700.0    MR     Moscow, Russia
745.0    BG     Karmanovo, Russia, 2x ID
750.0    NR     possibly Novolokti, Russia, 2x ID
816.0    EB     possibly Matveyevskiy, Russia
960.0    CY     Chervonyi, Ukraine, 2x ID
1005.0   LO     Klimovsk, Russia, 2x ID
1020.0   DK     Glotayevo, Russia, 2x ID
1290.0   TU     Bely, Russia, 3x ID